‘Fiqh – Wudoo, Ghusl & Tayammum’
This comprehensive meaning of purity is indicated in the words of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ as reported by Abu Hurairah, (R.A.): “What do you think? If there was a river at the door of one of you in which he bathes five times a day, would there be any filth left on him?” They answered, “There would be no filth left.” The Prophet ﷺ said, “That is like the five Prayers, through them Allâh wipes away sins.” (al-Bukhâri)
Also, the Prayer (Salât) is not accepted except if one is in a state of purity. This state if purity is achieved either through performing ablution (wudoo´), as in the case of minor impurity, or a bath (ghusl), as in the case of major impurity. The Prophet ﷺ said: “No Prayer is accepted without purification, and no charity is accepted from earnings made from impermissible sources.” (Muslim)
If a Muslim purifies himself in accordance with Allâh’s commandments and the Prophet’s instructions, his Prayer will be a means for him to purify himself of sins.
Islam is a religion of both outward and inward purity. Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ severely warned those who neglect physical purity which is a prerequisite for the validity of certain acts of worship, like Prayer, circumambulation (Tawâf) of the Ka’bah, touching or holding the Qur`ân, and its likes.
Ibn ‘Abbâs (R.A.) said: “The Messenger of Allâh ﷺ passed by two graves and said: “Indeed they are being punished, but for something which seemed trivial to them: this one used not to guard himself from urine; whereas the other was used to tale bearing.” He requested a green leaf of a palm branch, split it into two halves, and put a half on each grave. He then said, “Hopefully their punishment will be lightened until they (the branches) become dry.” (al-Bukhâri)
1. Purification is equal to half of the faith:
The Prophet of Allâh ﷺ said in this regard: “Cleanliness is equal to half the faith…” (Muslim)
2. Purification is one of the ways one can please Allâh and earn His love
Allâh ﷺ said: “Indeed Allâh loves those who continually seek repentance and those who purify themselves.” [Surah al-Baqarah (2):222]
3. To preserve and guard purification, [by always striving to be in a state of purity by performing ablution,] is one of the qualities of believers, for it is a type of worship seen only by Allâh.
The Prophet ﷺ said: “Always be upright, though you will not be able to perfectly, and know that the Prayer is the best of your deeds. Only a believer guards and preserves his wudoo´ (ablution).” (Ibn Maajah)
4. Maintaining purification is an act that leads to acceptance of supplication.
‘Amr bin ‘Abasah (R.A.) narrated that the Prophet ﷺ said, “No Muslim who sleeps in a state of purification (having performed ablution) and then after awakening during night, mentions Allâh and asks Him anything of the good of this life and the Hereafter, except that Allâh gives him what he asked for.” (Ahmad)
5. Purification elevates one’s rank and status.
Abu Hurairah (R.A.) narrated that the Prophet ﷺ said to Bilâl at the time of the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer: “O Bilâl, Tell me the most promising deed you have done in Islâm, for I heard the sound of your footsteps in Paradise.” Bilâl answered: “I haven’t done an act more hopeful to me than this: I have never performed ablution during the day or night except that [after it] I performed what I could of voluntary Prayers.” (al-Bukhâri)
Prior to entering Salaat, the person is required to undertake a certain purification procedure known as “Wudhu” without which, the person’s prayer would not be acceptable in the sight of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).
Allah,-the Almighty, says: “O ye who believe, when ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces and your arms to the elbows,- rub your heads (with water),- and (wash) your feet to the ankles” (Qur’an 5:6).
And the Prophet ﷺ , said: “ Prayer without ablution is invalid” (Reported by Imam Muslim).
1. Much virtue is attached to Wudhu which is properly performed as can be noted from the following saying of the Prophet ﷺ :“ A person who performs Wudhu properly will have his sins removed from his body, so much that the sins are removed even from underneath his nails” (Reported by Imam Muslim).
2. Having completed the Wudhu, the person may recite the “SHAHADA”, i.e. the words of witness and the supplication for concluding the Wudhu as follows:
ASHHADUANLAA ILAHA ILLA-LAAHU WA ASH-HADU ANNA MUHAMMADAN ABDUHU WA RASUULUHU. ALLAHUMMA IJ’ALNII MINA T-A WABIIN WA IJ’ALNII MINA-L MUTAHIRIIN, which means: I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and messenger… O Lord, make me among those who return to you in repentance and of those who are undefiled.
Regarding the virtue of the above supplication, the leader of the faithful, Umar lbn-ul Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) reported the Prophet ﷺ as saying:“ If anyone performs the Wudhu completely and then says, I testify that there is no god but Allah alone, He has no partner: and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger, the eight gates of Paradise will be opened for him and may enter by whichever of the gates he wishes” (Related by Imam Muslim).
3. When performing Wudhu, it is recommended to let the water reach beyond the area required to be washed (e.g., when washing the arms the person may wash beyond the elbows or beyond the ankles when washing the feet). Great virtue has been attached to this fact, as can be noted from the following saying of the Prophet ﷺ :“ My nation (Ummah) will be called (distinguished) on the Day of Judgement as a people with bright faces and limbs from the effect of their Wudhu practices. Therefore, anyone of you who wishes to increase his brightness may do so (by washing beyond the required areas when performing Wudhu)” (Reported by lmams Bukhari and Muslim).
4. The importance of the Miswak, the Prophet ﷺ said:“ If it had not been too great a burden on my Ummah, I would have ordered them to use the Miswak at every Wudhu” (Reported by Imam Malik).
Matters which Invalidate the Wudhu
The person will remain in a state of Wudhu until any of the following matters is committed:
GHUSL (Total Bath)
Ghusl in Islam means the bathing of the entire body with water. Proof of its legitimacy is embodied in the Qur’an as follows:“ And if ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body” (Qur’an 5:6).
Note : (Mothers please take this as an opportunity to explain about Menstruation and all, as the daughters in this age group are reaching this point soon). We are not discussing the points were Ghusl is obligatory as it might not be suitable for the 11-13yrs old.
Occasions for which Ghusl is preferred
How Ghusl is Performed
There are two essential requirements Intention & washing the full body. But there are also other voluntary acts recommended for Ghusl. Both the essential and the voluntary acts are now integrated here below to demonstrate how the Prophet ﷺ used to perform the Ghusl:
The person may after completing the Ghusl recite the supplication for concluding Ghusl which should be recited outside the toilet/bathroom and which is the same as the one recited after completing Wudhu.
Acts Forbidden to Persons who are required to Perform Ghusl
“At-Tayammum” is a means of using the soil to wipe one’s face and hands with the intention of preparing oneself to perform prayer. Proof of its legitimacy is found in the Qur’an as follows:“ And if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands, for Allah does blot out sins and forgives again and again” (Qur’an 4:43).
The Prophet ﷺ , also said:“ All of the earth has been made a pure place of prayer for me and my Ummah (Nation). Whenever a person from my nation wants to pray, he has something with which to purify himself … that is the earth” (Reported by Imam Ahmad).
Instances when At-Tayammum is Permitted
The Earth (Soil) to be used for At-Tayammum
This should be pure earth or soil and can be sand, stone or gypsum which produce dust when hit with the hands.
How to Perform At-Tayammum
Matters which Nullify At-Tayammum
Purification by At-Tayammum has the same validity as Wudhu and Ghusl performed with water, but becomes invalidated in the following cases: