‘Fiqh – Zakah, Siyaam & Hajj’
Zakat is a certain fixed portion of the wealth and property that a Muslim is obliged to pay yearly for the benefit of the poor in the Muslim community. The payment of Zakat is obligatory, as it is one of the five pillars of Islam. Zakat is the major economic means for establishing social justice and leading the Muslim society towards prosperity and security.
Every Muslim who owns a fixed, minimum amount of wealth (called Nisab), and who satisfies certain other conditions, must pay Zakat (2.5% of Nisab amount). The Qur’an mentions Zakat in many places. For example, Allah (S.W.T) says: خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِمْ بِهَا وَصَلِّ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ إِنَّ صَلَاتَكَ سَكَنٌ لَهُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
“Take Sadaqah (obligatory charity) from their wealth in order to purify them and sanctify them with it, and invoke Allah for them. Verily, your invocations are a source of security for them, and Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.” (9:103)
Praise be to Allah, we praise Him and seek His help and forgiveness. We seek refuge with Allah from the evil of our own selves and from our evil deeds. Whomsoever Allah guides cannot be misled, and whomsoever He leaves astray cannot be guided. I bear witness that there is no god except Allah alone, with no partner or associate, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.
Allah has blessed His slaves with certain seasons of goodness, in which hasanaat (rewards for good deeds) are multiplied, sayi’aat (bad deeds) are forgiven, people’s status is raised, the hearts of the believers turn to their Master, those who purify themselves attain success and those who corrupt themselves fail. Allah has created His slaves to worship Him, as He says (interpretation of the meaning): “And I (Allah) created not the jinns and humans except that they should worship Me (Alone).” [al-Dhaariyaat 51:56]
One of the greatest acts of worship is fasting, which Allah has made obligatory on His slaves, as He says (interpretation of the meaning): “… Observing al-Sawm (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become al-Muttaqoon (the pious).” [al-Baqarah 2:183]
He has mercy on them and keeps them away from difficulties and harm, as He says (interpretation of the meaning: “… but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days…”[al-Baqarah 2:184]
No wonder then, that in this month the hearts of the believers turn to their Most Merciful Lord, fearing their Lord above them, and hoping to attain His reward and the great victory (Paradise).
MERITS OF FASTING:-
Allah S.W.T. Proclaims interpretation of the meaning is: – ‘Every deed of the child of Adam is for himself, except for fasting. It is for Me and I shall reward it.’Fasting is a shield, so if it is a day of fasting for any one of you, then he should engage in no obscenity or shouting. If anyone belittles him or fights with him, he should just say ‘I am a person who is fasting’.I swear by Him in whose hand is Muhammad’s soul, the smell of the fasting person’s breath is sweeter to Allah on the Day of Judgment than that of musk. The fasting person has two occasions for joy, one when he breaks his fast because of his breaking it and the other when he meets his Lord because of the reward for his fast.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî (7492) and Sahîh Muslim (1151) with the wording being that of Muslim]
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said: – “…Whoever fasts in the month of Ramadan out of sincere faith, and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.” (Sahih Bukhari Book# 31 Hadith# 125)
PILLARS OF SIYAM
1. Neeayah (Intention): Making intention in the heart to fast during the preceding night. Allah’s Messenger ﷺ said: ” Whoever does not make intentions to fast before Fair (dawn) (i.e. during the preceding night) will have no fast.” (Ahmad, Abu Dawud, ibn Majah and At-Tirmithi)
Note: Intention for optional Fasts could be made at any time even during the day, if one has not done any act that invalidates Siyam.
2. Abstaining from eating, drinking. Fasting starts at dawn (about an hour and twenty minutes before sunrise) and lasts until sunset.
Allah (S.W.T) says interpretation of the meaning is: “…and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your Sawm (fast) till the nightfall.” (2:187)
ACTS THAT INVALIDATE (BREAK) SIYAM
Important Rule: The Fast is still valid if a person was:
ETIQUETTE/SUNNAH ACTS OF FASTING
“Dhahaba al-zama’, wa’btallat al-‘urooq, wa thabat al-ajru in sha Allaah”
The thirst is gone, the veins are moistened and the reward is confirmed, if Allah wills. (Reported by Abu Dawood, 2/765; its isnaad was classed as hasan by al-Daaraqutni, 2/185).
If you are reading this below ‘dua’.. (Allaahumma laka sumtu ….). then the scholars suggest to read the above dua.
The du`aa’ “Allaahumma laka sumtu wa `ala rizqika aftartu (O Allaah, for You have I fasted and by Your provision I have broken my fast)” was narrated by Abu Dawood, 2358. It is a mursal hadeeth so it is da`eef (weak) . Al-Albaani classed it as da`eef in ben dawwad (510)
ACTS FORBIDDEN/DISLIKED DURING THE FAST
HIGHLY RECOMMENDED ACTS DURING RAMADHAN
Sunnahs of Idul-Fitr Prayer
On the first day of Shawwal (the month that follows Ramadan) the person goes to the ‘id Mosque or praying ground having undertaken the following recommended acts:
Definition of hajj: Going to makkah to perform specific acts, at specific times, for the purpose of worship.
Allah said: “ولله على الناس حج البيت من استطاع إليه سبيلا, ومن كفر فإن الله غني عن العالمين” “.. And hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) to the house (Ka`bah) is a duty that mankind owes to Allah, those who can afford the expenses (for conveyance, provision and residence); and whoever disbelieves (i.e. denies hajj, then he is a disbeliever of Allah, then Allah stands not in need of any of the `alamin (mankind and jinns).” (Al-Imraan: 97)
There are many ahaadeeth which speak of the virtues of Hajj, one of the best is follows: Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: I heard the Prophet ﷺ say: “Whoever does Hajj for the sake of Allaah and does not commit sin, or dispute unjustly during the Hajj, will come back like the day his mother gave birth to him.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1449; Muslim, 1350)
TIPS FOR TEST