‘UTHMAN BIN AFFAN R.A.
Uthman bin Affan bin Abi Al-Aas bin Umayyah bin Abdul Shams bin Abd Manaf.
He was born in the sixth year of the Year of the Elephant. He became Muslim early and participated in the two Hijrahs: first to Habasha (Ethiopia) and the second to Madinah. He married Ruqayyah the daughter of the Prophet ﷺ, and she died on the night of Badr. The Prophet ﷺ then married her sister Umm Kulthum, to him. The scholars say: “No one is known to have married two daughters of a Prophet except him. For this reason, he was nicknamed ‘Dhun-Nurain (bearer of two lights). He was one of the ten given the tiding of Paradise and one of the Companions who compiled the Qur’ an.
He had a long beard and was good looking. It is said that he was the most handsome of the people. ‘Abdur· Rahman bin ‘Uthman Al-Qmaishi says: “The Messenger of Allah visited his daughter while she was washing the head of Uthman. He said to her: ‘Be nice to Abu “Abdullah (i.e. Uthman) for amongst my Companions he is the one whose character resembles mine the most.”‘
1) Narrated Abu Hurayrah “Allah’s Messenger was upon the mountain of Hira’ and there were along with him Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘ Ali, Talhah, and Zubayr. The mountain shook and thereupon Allah’s Messenger ﷺ said:
‘Be calm, there is none upon you but a Prophet, a Siddiq (the testifier of truth) and a Martyr.”‘
I say: This Hadifh is more general than the one that mentions “a martyr”. In this is a miracle of the Prophet ﷺ. All the individuals he mentioned, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘ Ali, Talhah, and Zubayr (R.A.), were all martyred.
2) From Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari R.A., who said: “I went out with the Prophet and he went behind a wall belonging to the Ansar and he answered the call of nature and then said to me: ‘0 Abu Musa, man the gate for me. No one should enter upon me except with permission.’ A man came and knocked on the gate and I said, ‘Who is that?’ He said:’ Abu Bakr.’ I said, ‘0 Messenger of Allah, here is Abu Bakr seeking permission to enter.’ The Prophet ﷺ said, ‘Open the gate for him and give him the glad tidings of Paradise.’ He entered and I gave him the glad tidings of Paradise. Then another man came and knocked on the gate. I said: ‘Who is there?’ and he said, “Umar.’ So I said to the Prophet ﷺ, ‘Here is ‘Umar seeking permission.’ The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘Open the gate for him and give him the glad tidings of Paradise.’ So I opened the gate for him and he entered and I gave him the glad tidings of Paradise. Then another man came and knocked on the gate. I said: ‘Who is there?’ and he said, “Uthman.’ So I said to the Prophet: ‘Here is ‘Uthman seeking permission.’ The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘Open the gate for him and give him the glad tidings of Paradise with a calamity which will befall him.“‘
3) From ‘Uthman, who said: “The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘He who digs the well of Rumah will have Paradise.’ ‘Uthman dug it. He also said, he who equips the army of Al-Usrah (i.e. the Ghazwa of Tabuk) will have Paradise. ‘Uthman equipped it.”
4) ‘Uthman also said: “I swear by Allah that I have not committed fornication before or after the coming of Islam.”
‘A’ishah R.A., reported: “The Prophet ﷺ was sitting with his leg exposed when Abu Bakr asked, and received, permission to enter. The same thing happened with ‘Umar. However, when ‘Uthman sought permission to enter, the Prophet covered himself with his clothes. When they left, I said, ‘0 Messenger of Allah, you permitted Abu Bakr and ‘Umar· to enter while your leg was exposed. When ‘Uthman asked permission to enter, you covered yourself with your clothes.’ He said, ‘0 ‘A’ishah, should I not be shy of a man who, by Allah, even the Angels are shy of?“‘
Al-Hasan R.A. mentioned ‘Uthman and the extent of his bashfulness. He said: “If ‘Uthman were to be at home and the door firmly locked, still he would almost not put off his cloth even to pour water on his body (to take a bath). Shyness prevents him from straightening his back.”
Ibn ‘Umar R.A., commented on the words of Allah: ” Is one who is obedient to Allah, prostrating himself or standing (in prayer) during the hours of the night, fearing the Hereafter and hoping for the Mercy of his Lord.” (Az-Zumur 9) he said: “That was ‘Uthman bin Affan.”
No one woke up from his household to help him with his water for ablution except that he finds him already awake. He used to fast perpetually. They used to blame him: “Why don’t you wake some of your servants to attend to you?” He replied, “No! The night is for them to rest therein.”
Al-Hasan reported that ‘Uthman said: “If our hearts were pure, we would never have enough of the words of our Lord. I hate (to think that) a day will come upon me in which I will not look into the Mus-haf (the Qur’an).” ‘Uthman did not die until his Mus-haf became tattered due to constant reading He was killed while the Quran was with him in his room.
His Fear of Allah
‘Abdullah bin Ar-Rome said: “The report has reached me that ‘Uthman ~said: ‘Were I to be standing in between Paradise and Hell, while I had no prior knowledge of which of the two I will be commanded to enter, I would have preferred to be turned to ashes before I come to know the one I will eventually enter.”‘
Whenever ‘Uthman R.A., stood by a grave, he would weep profusely such that his beards would be soaked. It was said to him:
“Whenever you mention Paradise and Hell, you do not weep. But anytime the grave is mentioned, you would weep. Why is this so?”
He replied: ” I heard the Messenger of Allah ﷺ say: ‘Verily the grave is the first step in the stages of the Hereafter; if one finds salvation (at this stage) the succeeding (stages) would become easy for him, and if he does not find salvation in it, what follows this stage will be very hard upon him.”‘
He also said: “Allah’s Messenger ﷺ said: ‘ I have never seen a sight more horrible than that of the grave.”‘
Hani’, the freed slave of ‘Uthman said: “I heard ‘Uthman recite a poem by a grave:
If you attain salvation from it, you will be saved from worse calamity,
If you fail, I do not consider you amongst the saved.”
Al-Hasan said: “I saw ‘ Uthman sleeping in the mosque under a blanket and no one was with him while he was the Amirul Mu’minin.”
An honorable invitation from Paradise: Break your fast with us 0 ‘Uthman!
Muslim ibn Sa’eed, the freed slave of ‘Uthman reported that, (one day during the siege) ‘Uthman freed twenty slaves. Thereafter, he asked for a trouser and he wore it tightly, even though he had never worn it before neither in Jahiliyyah nor in Islam. He said, “I saw the Messenger of Allah ﷺ in a dream, as well as Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, and they said to me: ‘Be patient for you are going to break your fast with us soon.”‘ Then he requested for a copy of the Qur’an and he opened it in front of him and he was killed while the Qur’an was in front of him. He surrendered to the decree of Allah. He refrained from fighting back and he commanded the people to refrain from fighting in his defense. Were it not for his insistence, they would have helped him against his enemies but the command of Allah is a decree determined.
When the people of his house decided to leave to avoid fighting, the rebels invaded his house. They burned down the door and entered upon him while none of the Companions were with him. They struck him while the Qur’an was still in his hands. At that time he was about ninety years of age.
Ibn Kathir says: “It is established by more than one report that the first drop of his blood fell on the words of Allah: “So Allah will suffice you against them. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.” (Al-Baqarah:138) And that is not far off for He was the One who revealed the Qur’an which he was reciting (when he was killed).
One of the rebels struck his hand and ‘Uthman said: “This is the first hand that ever wrote the Mufassal.” Ibn Asakir reported that when ‘Uthman received the first blow, he said,“Bismillah , tawnkaltu ala Allah” (In the name of Allah and upon Allah do I rely). When his blood poured forth, he said, “Subhaanallah Al-Adheem.” (Glory be to Allah, the Majestic).
Al-Asma reported from Al-Alai bin Al-Fadli who in turn reported from his father: “When ‘Uthman was assassinated, they ransacked his safe and they found in it a box that was locked. They opened it and they found in it a container bearing a sheet on which it was written:
‘This is the testament of ‘Uthman: In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. ‘Uthman bin Affan bears witness that none is worthy of worship (in truth) except Allah. He is Alone and has no partner and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. He also bears witness that Paradise is true, Hell Fire is true, and that Allah will resurrect (the dead) in the graves on the Day in which there is no doubt. Allah does not fail in His promise.’
“Upon this (witness) he lived and upon this he died and upon this will he will be resurrected if Allah wishes. When he was martyred, Az-Zubayr prayed Janazahover him and he was buried at the east of Al-Baqi'”.
The Justice of Allah
From Muhammad bin Sirin who said: ” I was circumambulating the Ka’bah when I heard a man crying: ‘0 Allah forgive me but I don’t think You will forgive me.’ So I said to the man, ‘0 servant of Allah, I have never heard anyone saying what you have said.’ He replied, ‘ I made a promise to Allah that if I have the opportunity I will strike the face of ‘Uthman. So when he was killed, his body was laid on his bed in his house while the people took turn to pray over him. I also entered on the pretext that I wanted to pray over him. When I was alone with his body, I uncovered his face and beard and then I hit him on the face. As a result my right (hand) dried up.”‘ Ibn Sirin said: “I saw it dried as if it was a wood!”
From Abu Qulabah who said: “I was in the company (of people) in Sham (Syria) when I heard a voice (of a man) saying: ‘Woe unto him in the Hellfire!” So I walked up to him and he was a man whose hands were amputated as well as his legs from the groin. He was also blind in his two eyes and he wore grief on his face. I asked him how he came about his situation. “He said: ‘I was amongst those who invaded ‘Uthman’ s house. When I got close to him, his wife screamed so I struck her. ‘Uthman said to me: “What is the matter with you?! May your hands be cut and your legs, may your eyes go blind and may you enter Hell.” (At this curse), I was seized by a violent shivers and I ran out of his house. Now I am afflicted with what you are seeing. Nothing remains of his curse except Hellfire.’ I said to him: may you be distanced (from Allah’s Mercy) and may you be humiliated.”
Yazid bin Abi Habeeb said: “The majority of those who invaded ‘Uthman’s house eventually became insane.”
Repose in happiness, 0 Dhun-Nurain and the end is for the righteous.
Response to Allegations Against ‘Uthman
Some evil people spread different allegations and blatant slander against ‘Uthman in their bid to suppress the truth and to impugn the third of the rightly guided Khalifahs. Scholars of the past and the present have responded to them aptly and rendered each allegation ineffective and they exposed their forgeries.” And Allah has full power and control over His Affairs.”
You can read about this in the Books and many other places, if someone of you wishes to read about, one can ask, have not added in the note to make it smaller.
‘ALI IBN ABI TALIB R.A.
Who Was He?
He was ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib ibn Abdul Muttalib, the son of the Prophet’s uncle, the banner of the rightly guided, the light of the obedient, the leader of the just, the heart of the insightful, the tongue of those who are inquisitive, the foremost of them in faith, the husband of Fatimah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (R.A.) .
He was part of the Battles of Badr, Trench, Khaybar and there are some great stories of his bravery and strength as to how he fought with the enemies and finished them.
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said to Fatimah (his daughter):
“Don’t you like that I should many you to the forerunner of my Ummah in submission, the one who has the most knowledge and greatest of them in intelligence?“
Ibn Sa’ d also reported that ‘Ali ~ said: “By Allah, no verse was revealed except that I know why it was revealed, where it was revealed and regarding whom it was revealed. My Lord has blessed me with an insightful heart and a truthful tongue.”
Ibn Sa’d and others also reported that’ Ali said: “Ask about the Book of Allah for there is no verse that was revealed except that I know whether it was revealed at night or during the day, or whether it was revealed on a plain or on a mountain.”
Tubah (Glad Tidings) for the Ascetics in This World
Knowledge is better than wealth. Knowledge protects you but you are saddled with protecting your wealth. Knowledge increases upon action, but wealth is decreased by spending. The love of knowledge is worship.
Knowledge earns for the knowledgeable obedience (to Allah) in his life and the most beautiful of commendation after his death. The condition engendered by wealth will vanish with the disappearance of wealth.
The amasser of wealth dies while they are still living but the (knowledge of) scholars remains extant as long as time exists. They are gone physically but their legacy is retained in the hearts, here,’ and he pointed his hand to his chest. This is where knowledge is retained. If I find for it a carrier, yet, I have only found for it a learner, I cannot be rest assured over it (that it will be used).
‘How many are supposed carriers of knowledge who use the implements of the deen for thedunya. He uses the proofs of Allah against His Book. He uses His blessings against His servants. He criticizes the people of truth without any w1derstanding. Doubt sparks in his heart at the very first contact with any vague (matter of the deen). He is neither here nor there.
Or he takes pleasure in enjoyment and easily gives in to his desire. He is enticed by the accumulation of wealth and storing it up, and he is not from the callers to the deen. The closest description of them is that they are like stray animals.
Similarly, knowledge dies with the death of its carrier. By Allah, this is the reality. The Earth will not be bereft of people who would establish the proofs of Allah on it so that the proofs and evidences of Allah are not corrupted. These are the people, small in number, yet, great in esteem in the sight of Allah. With them, Allah protects His proofs until they hru1d it over to their fellows. They plru1t it in ti1e hearts of people similar to them.
They have become mixed with knowledge in the real sense of the word and they consider easy what others find hard and difficult. They find companionship in what the ignorant find isolation and loneliness.
‘They live in the world with their bodies and their souls are connected witi1 the exalted assembly (in the heavens). These are the vicegerents of Allah on His land and callers to His deen.
Quickly! Make haste to see them. May Allah forgive me ru1d you. If you wish you may rise.”
From His Deep Expression and Subtle Enlightenment
‘Ali ~ also said: “Memorize from me, five things, were you to ride a camel in their quest, you wouldn’ t have attained them. You would tire out your camel before you attain them.
“A servant should not have hope in anything except in Allah; he should not fear anything except his sin; the ignorant should not feel shy to ask about what he knows not; a scholar should not be shy to say ‘Allah knows best’ when he is asked about what he does not know.
“Patience in relation to lmiin (faith) is like the head to the entire body. He has no Iman who does not have patience.”
‘Ali, said: “The most difficult of deeds are three: fulfilling the rights of other people upon your-self, remembering Allah in all situations, and assisting your brother with wealth.”
His Passage to the Eternal Paradise
Al-Asbag Al-Hanzali said: On the night that ‘Ali was struck, Ibn AI-Tiyah came to him to call him for the salat when the Fajr (dawn) appeared. At this time, ‘Ali was reclining heavily. So he returned the second time while I Ali was still in the same position and again he returned the third time. After the third time, ‘Ali rose and walked to the mosque saying:
Fasten your belt for death
For certainly death will meet you
Do not be worried over death
When it makes a stopover at your step.
When he got to the small door, Ibn Muljam sprang out and struck him. An elder from the Qmaish reported that when ‘Ali was struck by ibn Muljam, he said: “I have succeeded by the Lord of the Ka’ bah.” Muhammad ibnAli reported that when, Ali was struck, he advised his children and then he never said any other words except: “La ilaaha illallah” until his soul was taken. He was washed by his sons, Hasan and Husayn and ‘Abdullah ibn Ja’far. Al-Hasan led the funeral prayer for him.
The Befitting Conclusion
Dhirar bin Dhamrah Al-Kanani said:
“By Allah, he was extremely persevering, firm in strength, deliberate in speech, and just in judgment; knowledge emitted from all around him, wisdom exuded from his words. He abhorred the world and its glitters. He kept the company of the night and its darkness (i.e. prayed through the night). He was profuse in tears, (i.e. he frequently wept) deep in contemplation, quick in penitence He used to address (censor) his own soul. He was satisfied in his clothing by what is little, and in his food by what is coarse.
“He conducted himself like anyone of us. He came to us when we approached him and he responded to us when we asked him. In spite of our closeness to him, we could not speak to him due to our awe for him. He smiled like the sparkle of well- arranged pearls. He gave regard to the religious people and he loved the poor. He did not lean to the falsehood of the powerful and he did not distress the weak because of his justice.
“I call Allah to witness, I have seen him standing in the middle of the night, when the stars were no longer visible, in his mihrab (place of prayer) holding his beard and ruffling it while he was weeping like the one who is grieved. Right now, it as if I can still hear him say:
‘Ya Rabbana (0 om Lord)! Ya Rabbana!’ humbling himself before Him. Then he said to the world: ‘Is it me you want to deceive? And is it me you are adorning yourself for? Impossible! Impossible! You can deceive someone else (not me) for I have severed you from me (three times). Your lifespan is short, your place of stay is miserable, yam peril is great. Worse still is the paucity of provision, the length of the journey and roughness of the road’.”
Finally ‘Ali ~ said: “Be, (in relation) to the people, like the bee is to a bird. The bird has no regard for the bee other than to behave to it arrogantly. Were the bird to know what the bee carries inside it of blessing, it would not behave in such a manner to the bee. Mingle with the people with your· tongues and with your bodies but avoid them with your actions and your hearts. For a man is what he has earned and he will be with those whom he loves on the Day of Judgment.”