Abu Bakr As Siddiq R.A.
He is ‘Abdullah bin Abi Quhafah.
Mus’ab ibn Az-Zubayr said: “The Ummah is agreed on naming him As-Siddiq.”
The incidence which gave him this nickname is reported from ‘ A’.ishah R.A. “The disbelievers came to Abu Bakr, Allah be pleased with him, and they said: ‘What do you have to say about yow· Companion, he claims that he was taken by night to Bait Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem).’ Abu Bakr said, ‘did he say that to you?’ They replied, ‘Yes (he did)’ He said, ‘He is telling the truth. I have believed him in what is even more distant (to reason) than that, of divine information.’ It is because of this he was named As-Siddiq.”
He was born two years and some months after the birth of the Prophetﷺ. Imam Al-Nawawfi (Allah have mercy on him) said: “He was from the chiefs of the Quraish in Jahiliyyah and one of their consultants. He was loved by them and was the most learned. So when Islam came, it affected him more than anything else and he entered in to it completely.”
His Uprightness in Jahiliyyah
‘A’ishah R.A. said: “By Allah, never did Abu Bakr chant poetry, whether in Islam or in Jahiliyyah. He and Uthma.n abhorred drinking intoxicants in Jahilliyah.” She also said: “Abu Bakr hadmade intoxicants forbidden for himself even in Jahilliyah.”
His Acceptance of Islam
Abu Bakr was the first to accept Islam among the men, ‘Ali was the first among the children, and Khadijah was the first to become Muslim among the women.
The virtues of As-Siddiq are indeed so copious that enumerating them would be difficult. We will however mention a few of them:
1. Allah says: “The second of two, when they (Muhammad and Abu Bakr, were in the cave, and he said to his companion Abu Bakr R.A.: ‘Be not sad (or afraid), surely Allah is with us.”‘ (At-Tawbah: 42)
Abu Bakr ~, also reported: “I said to the Prophet ﷺ while we were in the cave: ‘If any of them should look under his feet, he would see us.’ He said, ‘0 Abu Bakr! What do you think of two (persons) the third of whom is Allah?’“
2. The first to pray with the Prophet: It is reported from Zayd ibn Al-Arqam R.A., that he said: “The first person to pray with the Prophet ﷺ was Abu Bakr As-Siddiq.”
3. Allah’s emancipated (slave) from the Fire:
‘A’ishah R.A., reported: “Abu Bakr once entered upon the Messenger ﷺ and he said, ‘You are the emancipated of Allah from the Fire’ and since that day he was known as the Emancipated (Atiq).“
4. The chiefs of the middle-aged of Paradise:
‘Ali R.A. reported that the Prophet ﷺ said: “Abu Bakr and ‘Umar will be the chiefs of the middle-aged inhabitants of Paradise, of those who belonged to the earliest and latest times, except the prophets and messengers.“
5. ‘Abdullah bin Hantab ~’ reported: “The Prophet ﷺ saw Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and said: ‘These two are to me (like) hearing and sight.“‘
6. Ahmad and others reported that ‘Ali R.A. said: “The best of this Ummah after its Prophet is Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.”
Imam Adh-Dhahabi said: “This is profusely reported from ‘Ali, so may the curse of Allah be upon the Rafidhah over what they are ignorant of (that they say).”
SPARKLING DISPLAYS OF FAITH FROM HIS LIFE
First Display: A man who announced his faith
While many of the Companions of the Prophetﷺ would conceal their faith till (the time) Allah established for them their religion, which He had chosen for them, Abu Bakr R.A.,demonstrated an unmatched boldness in announcing his faith even though the nonbelievers hated it.
The following incident is worth mentioning: From’ Ali R.A. who said: “I once saw the Prophet being held by the Quraish. They shook him violently while they were saying:’ Are you the one who made the gods into one?’ By Allah no one came close (to help the Prophet) amongst us except Abu Bakr R.A., and he retorted: ‘Woe be to you, would you kill a man just for saying his Lord is Allah?”‘
Then ‘Ali R.A., raised an outer garment that was on him and he cried till his beard was soaked. Then he said: “I adjure you for the sake of Allah, is the believer of the people of Fir’ awn better than Abu Bakr?” Then the people became silent. He said: “Won’t you answer me? By Allah, an hour (in the worship of Allah) of Abu Bakr is better than one thousand hours (spent in worship) by the believer of the people of Fir’awn. He was a man who concealed his faith and here is a man (Abu Bakr) who announced his faith.”
Second Display: The Day of Badr
Ibn Asakir reported from Ibn Sirin that’ Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr was with the non-believers on the Day of Badr. When he became a Muslim, he said to his father: “You were exposed to me on the Day of Badr and I turned away from you, I did not kill you.” Abu Bakr R.A., said: “As for me, if you were exposed to me, I would not have turned away from you.”
In this phase, the greatness of the faith of Abu Bakr R.A. exemplified by the depth of his truthfulness and sincerity in preferring the love of Allah and His Messenger above everything else besides them.
The Prophet ﷺ said: “None of you truly believes until I am more beloved to him than himself, his children, his family and all the people in entirety.”
Abu Ya’qub An-Nahjuri said: “Everyone who claims to love Allah but does not accept His Commands, then his claim is false. Every beloved who does not fear Allah, is a deceiver.”
Third Display: The Day the Prophet Died
It is reported from Ibn Abbas’ that when the Prophet ﷺ died, Abu Bakr went out while ‘Umar was speaking to the people. Abu Bakr said to him: “Sit down 0 ‘Umar,” but ‘Umar refused to sit. Abu Bakr repeated, “Sit down 0 ‘ Umar.” So the people came to Abu Bakr and left ‘ Umar. Abu Bakr R.A., said, “To proceed, if anyone amongst you used to worship Muhammad, then Muhanm1ad is dead, but if (anyone of) you used to worship Allah, then Allah is Alive and shall never die. Allah says: ‘Muhammad is no more than a Messenger and indeed (many) messengers have passed away before him. If he dies or is killed, will you then turn back on your heels (as disbelievers) and he who turns back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah, and Allah will give reward to those who are grateful.“‘ (Aal-Imran:144)
Ibn Abbas ~ said: “By Allah, it was as if the people never knew that Allah had revealed this verse before, till Abu Bakr recited it and all the people took it from him, and I heru·d everybody reciting it (then).”
Ibn Shihab said: “Sa’eed bin Al-Musayyab told me that ‘Umar·, Allah be pleased with him, said, ‘By Allah, when I heard Abu Bakr reciting it, my legs could not support me and I fell down at the very moment of hearing him reciting it, declaring that the Prophet ﷺ had died.”‘
Others were: –
a) He fought the apostates who abandoned Zakah after the death of the Prophet ﷺ, recognizing the importance of the Pillars of Islam.
b) Compilation of Quran:
Abu Ya’la also reported from ‘Ali R.A., who said: “The one who has the greatest reward amongst the people is Abu Bakr. He was the first to compile the Quran between two slates.”
His Spending in the Path of Allah
The occurrence of his spending are many, they include:
1. Regarding the statement of Allah: “And Al-Muttaqun (the pious and righteous) will be far removed from it (Hell). He who spends his wealth for increase in self-purification and have in his mind no favor from anyone for which a reward is expected in return except only the desire to seek the Countenance of his Lord, the Most High. He surely will be pleased (when he will enter Paradise.” (AJ-Layl:17-21)
Imam Al-Qurtubi said: “The majority opinion is that the Surah (chapter) was revealed about Abu Bakr.” What feat is greater than this? Which merit is more precious than this?
From Ibn Abbas R.A., who said: “The nonbelievers tortured Bilal and he kept saying: ‘Ahad,Ahad’ (i.e. there is only One God).
Then the Prophet ﷺ passed by him and said (to him): ‘Ahad, that is, Allah (alone) will save you.’ Then the Prophet ﷺ said to Abu Ba.kr: ‘0 Abu Bakr, Bilal is being tortured because of Allah.’ Abo Bakr knew what the Messenger of Allah ﷺ intended. He went to his house and took two measures of gold and headed to Umayyah bin Khalaf, Bilal’s master. He said to him, ‘Would you sell Bilal to me?’ He said ‘Yes.’ So he bought Bilal and freed him.”
2. Allah’s Messenger ﷺ said, “No one has helped me without my reciprocating it, except for Abu Bakr, who has given me help, which Allah will reciprocate to him on the Day of Resurrection. No one’s property has benefited me to the extent of Abu Bakr’s.”
3. From ‘Umar ibn AI-Khattab R.A. who said: ” Allah’s Messenger ﷺ commanded us to give sadaqah, and it applied to my property. I said: ‘Today I shall better Abu Bakr. I have never bettered him.’ Then I brought half my property. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘What did you leave for your family?’ I said: ‘An amount like this.’ Abu Bakr came with all his property, and the Messenger of Allah ﷺ asked: ‘What did you leave for your· family?’ He said: ‘I have left Allah and His Messenger.’ Then I said: ‘I shall never better you in anything.”‘
His Advice to ‘Umar on His Deathbed
Abdul’ Rahman ibn ‘ Abdullah ibn Sabit said: “When deathapproached Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, he called ‘Umcu· and said to him:’Fear Allah, 0 ‘Umar, and you should know that Allah hasrecommended some actions for the daytime, He will not accept that you do them at night. He has deeds for the night and will notaccept that you do them in the daytime. He will not acceptvoluntary y acts til you fulfill the obligatory duties. Allah willmake heavy the scale of whoever fills it on the Day of Judgmentwith their following the truth in this world. The scale that is filledwith the truth (today), will be heavy (tomorrow).
‘The scale (of good deeds) will be light for whosoever fills itwith following the falsehood in this world. The scale in whichfalsehood is placed will be light tomorrow. Allah mentions thepeople of Paradise and mentions them with the best of their· deeds and overlooks their evil deeds. When I remember them, I say: I am afraid, I may not catch up with them. Allah also mentions the people of Hellfire and He mentions them with the evilest of their deeds and their best deeds will be rejected. When I remember them, I say: I wish I am not runong these people. ‘A servant should be hopeful and fearful, not too confident and not despairing of the mercy of Allah. If you keep to my advice, nothing will be more beloved to you than death and certainly it will soon come to you. If you disregarded my advice, nothing will be more hateful to you than death and you cannot prevent it.”‘
Final Moments of His Life
‘A’ishah said: “When Abu Bakr became sick, prior to his death, he said, ‘Check what has increased in my wealth since I came to power, and hand it over to the Khalifah after me.’ So we checked and found nothing but a slave that carried children for him and a camel that waters his garden, and we took them to ‘Umar.” ‘A’ishah, also said: “My grandfather told me that ‘Umar wept [when he received those items], he said: ‘May Allah’s mercy be upon Abu Bakr, he has put his successor in a very straitened situation.”‘
From’ A’ishah who said: “When death approached Abu Bakr, he asked: ‘What day is this?’ They replied: ‘Monday.’ Then he said: ‘If I die this night, do not delay me till tomorrow for the most beloved day and night is the one that is closest to the Messenger of Allah (i.e. the day of his death).”‘ From Ubadah ibn Qays, who said: “When Abu Bakr approached death, he said to ‘A’ishah: ‘Wash these two clothes of mine and shroud me in them for your father is either of two men – either he is clothed in the best of dress or he is disrobed in the worst possible form.”
UMAR BIN KHATTAB
He is ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab ibn Nufayl ibn ‘Abdui-Uzzah.
He became Muslim in the sixth year of prophethood when he was twenty-seven years of age. He was one of the ten given the glad tidings of Paradise.
His acceptance of Islam was brought about by the dua of the Prophet ﷺ. Ibn ‘Umar narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “0 Allah, help Islam with one of the two men that is most beloved to You: Abu Jahl or with ‘Umar· ibn AI-Khattab. And the more beloved of the two to him was ‘Umar·.”
He was also the first person to publicly proclaim Islam. Ibn Abbassaid: “The first person to publicly proclaim Islam was ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab.”
Uqbah ibn Amirnarrated that the Prophet said: “Were there to be a prophet after me, it would have been ‘Umar’.” And from Abu Sa’eed, who said: Allah’s Messenger said: “The angels speak on his tongue.”
Statements of the Companions About Him
Revelation of the Qur’an Agreeing With His Opinion
Narrated Anas’: that ‘Umar said, “I had the same idea as Allah in three things: I said, ‘0 Allah’s Messenger! I wish that you take the station of Ibrahim as a place of prayer.’ So Allah revealed:
“And take you (people) the Maqarn (place) of Ibrahim [or the stone on which Ibrahim stood while he was building the Ka’bah] as a place of prayer.” (Al-Baqarah:125)
He also said, ‘0 Allah’s Messenger! Good and bad persons enter upon your’ wives, I wish that you ordered them to cover themselves with veils.’ So the verses of Al-Hijab (i.e. veiling of the women) were revealed. The wives of the Prophet gathered against him and I said to them: ‘It may be if he divorced you (all) that his Lord will give him instead of you, wives better than you.’ Thereupon Allah revealed a verse with similar wordings.”
The number of times ‘Umar’s opinion agrees with the Qur’an is more than these three. The number is in excess of twenty.
His Worship and Fear of Allah
On the face of ‘Umar were two dark marks from constant weeping. He used to love praying in the middle of the night and used to say: “If a goat were to die by the edge of the Euphrates, I would be afraid that Allah will call me to account (for its death).”
Also from ‘Abdullah ibn Amir, who said, “I saw ‘Umar picking up a straw from the ground and then said: ‘Would that I could be (like) this straw? Would that I was never created (in the first place)? Would that my mother never gave birth to me? Would that I was nothing? Would that I was something forgotten?'”
Ibn ‘Umar also said: “Umar· fasted continuously two years before his death except on the day of Adha and the day of Fitr or on a journey.”
‘Umar·, used to pray in the night as (long as) Allah wished until when it was the last part of the night when he would wake his family saying: “As-Salat! as-Salat!” And he would recite:
“And enjoin As-Salat (the prayer) on yow- family, and be patient in offering them [i.e. the Salat (prayers)].” (Ta Ha:132)
He was most humble to Allah and led an austere life. His food was very coarse and he would patch his cloth with leather. He used to carry a water skin on his shoulders in spite of his great esteem. He used to ride on (the bare back of) a donkey. The animal would be concealed by palm fibers. He used to laugh little and never joked with anyone. Engraved on his ring was: “Death is sufficient as an admonition, 0 ‘Umar.”
When he was appointed as the Khalifah, he said: “Nothing is permissible (for me) from the treasury beyond two clothes, one for the cold season and the other for the dry season. The sustenance of my family will be the equivalent of an average man of Quraish and not the rich amongst them, for I am just an ordinary man among the Muslims (i.e. nothing special about me).”
Once, ‘Umarwas scolded for his hardness upon himself. It was said to him: “If you would (at least) eat good food, it will strengthen you upon the truth.” He responded: “I left my two companions on a path, even if I walk their path still I will not attain their position.”
Even as a Khalifah, he used to wear a woollen garment part of which was stitched with leather. He would roam the marketplace with a whip on his shoulder disciplining people with it.
Whenever he came across a lost date, he would throw it into living quarters of people so they can benefit from it.
At the time of a drought, ‘Umar ate bread and oil until his skin turned pale dark and he would say: “What a bad leader would I be if I eat my fill and the people go hungry.”
Put It On My Back!
Aslam also narrated: “I went out with ‘Umar one night toward Harrah Waqim until we saw a tent where some fire was burning. ‘Umar said: ‘Come, ride along, 0 Aslam, it appears they have been restricted by the darkness of the night. Let’s go to them.’ We approached them and there was only a woman and her children and she had a pot on the fire. The children were crying.
‘Umar said to her: ‘As-Salam alaykum.’ And she replied: ‘Wa alaykm As-Salam.’ ‘May I come closer?’ ‘Umar asked. ‘Come closer or let us be (the choice is yours).’ The woman responded.
‘Umar drew closer to her and asked: ‘What is the matter?’
‘We are detained by the night and the cold.’ she replied.
‘Then why are these children crying?’ ‘Umar further inquired.
She said: ‘They are hungry.’
‘And what are you cooking,’ ‘Umar persisted in asking.
‘There is only water to while away the children until they fall asleep (from exhaustion). Allah will judge between me and Umar,’ the woman said, unaware of who she was speaking to.
‘Umar wept profusely. He rushed to the state granary and put together the necessary provisions in a bag and said: ‘Put it on my back, 0 Aslam.’ I objected and said, ‘I will carry it on your behalf.’ ‘Will you carry my burden for me on the Day of Resurrection?’ he interjected. So I placed the load on his back and he carried it to the woman.
‘Umar placed some flour into the pot and added some fat. He blew at the fire until smoke came out of his thick beard. He took off the pot from the fire when the food was ready. He said: ‘Let me have a plate.’ When the plate was brought, he dished the food and placed it in front of the children. ‘Eat,’ he said to them and the children ate until they had their fill. They kept praying for ‘Umar ~, unaware of his identity. He stayed with them until the children fell asleep. He gave them the remaining provision and then took leave of them. On the way, he turned to me and said: ‘0 Aslam, hunger kept them awake and made them cry; I loved to keep their company until I see in them what I just saw.”
His Yearning for the Hereafter
After the blessed journey of life that ‘Umar undertook in Islam, [in which] the earth was subjected for him. The flag of Tawheed during his time was hoisted at full mast in many territories, such as: Basra, Tripoli, Iraq, Ahwaz, Nahawind Khurassan, Palestine, the East, Egypt and many others places.
Now, it is time for the traveler to go home and to attain the goal for which he lived & for which he died.
Imam ibn Kathir said: “When ‘Umar concluded his rites of Hajj in the year 23 Hijrah, he made a stopover in a valley. He prayed to Allah and cried to Him that he has become advanced in age and his sinews have become weak; meanwhile, his care and worries (the territories) have spread wide and he is afraid of deterioration. So he asked Allah to take him to Himself and to grant him martyrdom in the land of the Prophet ﷺ just as it is established in the Sahih that he used to say: “0 Allah! I ask You for martyrdom in Your cause and death in the land of your Messenger.”
Allah accepted his dua and combined these two requests for him: martyrdom in the city of the Prophet and this was no doubt a great achievement. Allah is indeed kind to whom He wishes.
It happened that Abo Lu’ lu AI-Fayruz, the fire worshipper, who had a Roman origin, stabbed him while he was in salah with a dagger with two blades. He stabbed him three times and according to another narration, six times, one of these below the navel. “Umar fell down bleeding profusely.
He asked ‘Abdur Rahman bin Awf to replace him to conclude the prayer. Abo Lu’lu, who was a Kafir, withdrew with his dagger but kept stabbing whoever came his way in the masjid until he stabbed thirteen people out of which six died as a result of their injures. ‘Abdullah bin Awf threw lt is robe on him and when he saw that he was going to be overpowered, Abu Lu’lu stabbed himself to death (may Allah’s curse be upon him).
‘Umar was taken to his house with blood gushing out from his wound. All of these occured before sunrise. He kept passing in and out of consciousness. Then they reminded him of Salah and he came around and said “Yes! He is not fortunate, in Islam, whoever abandons it.” Then he prayed at its time.
His Journey to Paradise
‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar, his son. He said:
“When Abo Lu’lu stabbed ‘Umar, ‘Umar immediately thought he had committed an offense against the people while he was unaware, the consequence of which is this stabbing. So he called ibn Abbas, whom he really loved, and who was close to him and whom he listened to. He said to him: ‘I would like to know what the feeling of general populace is regarding this (stabbing).’ So ibn Abbas went out and he did not meet any group of people except that they were weeping.
“So he came back with the report: ‘0 Amirul Mu’minin, I did not come across any group of people except that they were weeping. It is as if they had lost their first bom.’ Then, ‘Umarasked: ‘Who killed me?’ Ibn Abbas replied: ‘Abu Lu’lu, the fire worshipper, the slave of Mugheerah bin Shu’bah.’ Ibn Abbas continued: ‘(at that) I saw some joy written on his face .’ Then he said: ‘Praise be to Allah who has not afflicted me from the hands of someone who subscribes to La Ilaha Illallah.