‘FAITH IN AL QADR’
The belief in Al-Qadar is one of the pillars of Aqeedah. It is the sixth pillar of faith. Therefore, whoever disbelieves in Allah’s Al-Qadar is a disbeliever.
We refer to Hadith of Umar Ibnu al-Khtaab who related that the Prophet ﷺ was asked by Jibreel about Eemaan, and said: “You affirm your faith in Allah, in His angels, in His Books, in His Apostles, in the Day of Judgement, and you affirm your faith in Al-Qadar, good and bad”.’
THE DEFINITION OF AL-QADA’ WAL-QADAR
Scholars have differed in their definition of Al-Qada’ walQadar. Some have considered them one entity, and some have defined Al-Qada’ separately from-Al-Qadar. They said;
Al-Qadar is Allah’s Knowledge (SWT) of the future condition of His creation.
Al-Qada’ is Allah’s creation of everything in accordance with His Knowledge and Will.
Those who have defined it as one said: “It is the well-planned system established by Allah for this existence, the general laws, and the rules by which He linked the causes with its effects”. This definition is referred to in many verses of the Qur’an where Al-Qadar is mentioned. Allah SWT says:
Al-Qadar is what Allah SWT decides in His saying:
“Say you (0 Muhammad): “Indeed the affairs belong wholly to Allah” (3:154) “And to Him return all affairs (for decision)” (11:123)
There are other verses which indicate that nothing can happen in the universe without His Permission and Will. In fact, the doctrine of Al-Qadar is based primarily on the belief in Allah’s Attributes and beautiful Names: Knowledge, Ability, Will. Allah SWT says:
At-Tahaawee said: “Everything happens according to His decree and Will, and His Will is accomplished. The only will that people have is what He Wills for them. What He Wills for them occurs and what He does not Will, does not occur. No one can ward off His decree, put back His command or overpower His affairs.”
Aspects of Faith in Al-Qadar
Every Muslim should believe in Al-Qadar, good or bad, sweet or bitter. Believing in Al-Qadar is believing in Allah’s Eternal Knowledge, His accomplished Will and His comprehensive Ability. Sheikh al-Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah explained this by saying: “the belief in Al-Qadar is of two degrees, each degree contains two things”.
The First degree
The belief that Allah SWT knows what His creation will do by virtue of His Eternal Knowledge. He (SWT) knows all that His creation will do as regards obedience, transgression, their sustenance and life-span. Allah recorded the measurement of all matters pertaining to creation in Al-Lawh al-Mahfud (The Book of Decree). The first thing that Allah SWT created was Al-Qalam (the Pen), He told it: “Write”, The Pen said: “What shall I write?” He said: “Write what will happen till the Day of Resurrection, whatever a person receives, he will have never missed it, and whatever he has missed he would never have received it. The Pen has dried having written down all that will be in existence until the Day of Judgement.
Allah says: ”
The Second degree
Is the belief in Allah’s accomplished Will and His comprehensive Ability. It is the belief that what Allah Wills will happen and what He does not Will, will not happen. Any movement or tranquillity that takes place in heaven or earth is by Allah’s Will. Nothing happens except what He Wills. He, Exalted and Glorified, is Able to create anything He wants. Anything in heaven and on earth is created only by Allah, and there is no other creator besides Him. He orders His servants to obey Him and His Messengers; and He forbids them to disobey Him. He (SWT) loves the pious, righteous people and those who give charity and act justly. He is pleased with those who believe, and do righteous good deeds. Allah hates disbelievers, and He is displeased with transgressors and sinners. He does not order His creation to commit evil deeds, nor does He accept Kufr, or corruption. Allah created all creation, all that they possess of attributes and all their actions, but they have a will of their own and they act accordingly. The servant is the believer, the disbeliever, the pious, the sinner, the worshipper, and the fasting person. The servants have ability to fulfil their actions and they have a will, but Allah created them, and their ability and wills.
We deduce from Ibnu Taymiyyah’s account that faith in A-Qadar consists of four steps:
However, the division of Al-Qadar, which we should believe in, into good and bad is only related to human and creations. As for Allah, the Exalted and Glorified, Al-Qadar is all good and the evil does not belong to Him. Allah’s Knowledge, His Will, His recording and His creation of things and events is all wisdom, justice, mercy and blessing. Therefore, the evil is not an attribute or an action of Allah, His Ownself is exempt from any deficiency or evil. He (SWT) has absolute Perfection and complete Majesty So, We must not attribute evil to Allah, but it can be included in all general creation.
Allah says: “Allah is the Creator of all things” (39:62)
It could also be attributed to the cause, as in Allah’s verse: “Say: “I seek refuge with the Lord of the day-break, from the evil of what He has created.” (113:1,2)
And Allah says: “And we know not whether evil is intended for those on earth, or whether Their Lord intends for them a Right Path.” (72:10)
The truth is Allah SWT does not create evil exclusively in every respect, His Wisdom refuses that. Allah does not intend something to be evil in every respect. He (SWT) possesses all good and the evil does not belong to Him. However, the evil occurs because it is not an attribute of Allah, and if it is attributed to Him, it will not be evil. Ascribing evil to Allah, therefore, as creation and will, is not an evil.
For example, sickness is an evil and affliction for human beings in this world, but it is good for him in the Hereafter, and good for Allah, the Exalted and Glorified, because He knows that it is a way of forgiving sins and purifying the souls. Likewise, the imprisonment of believers by the enemy of Allah is, apparently, an evil act because of the afflictions and hardships. However, it is also a purification and education of the souls, in addition to the great reward and enormous blessing. The creation of Iblis (Satan), though, has numerous apparent underlying reasons, such as the repentance of people after they have sinned, the believers worshipping of Allah by fighting Satan and his party, the endurance of Satan’s temptations and allurements, the resort to Allah’s protection and the seeking of His refuge and shelter.
Therefore, anything which is evil is only proportional. It is good with regard to Allah’s action and creation, and evil with regard to human beings. Evil has two aspects, one of which is good and is attributed to the Creator, by His creation and Will because of its perfect wisdom which He, Alone, knows and of which He revealed to whom He Wills from His creation.
Disbelievers Use Al-Qadar As An Excuse
Polytheists have tried to use Al-Qadar of Allah SWT, and His Will as an excuse for their disbelief. They claimed that if Allah has not Willed for them polytheism, they would not commit it. However, Allah SWT has invalidated their excuse by saying:
“Those who took partners (in worship) with Allah will say: “If Allah had willed, we would not have taken partners (in worship) with Him, nor would our fathers, and we would not have forbidden anything (against His Will)”. Likewise believed those who were before them, till they tasted our Wrath. Say: “Have you any knowledge (proof) that you can produce before us? Verily, you follow nothing but guess and you do nothing but lie”. Say: “With Allah is the perfect proof and argument, had He so Willed, He would indeed have guided you all” (6:148,149)
This is the reply of Allah SWT to anyone who argues about His Qadar in disobeying Him, and with Allah is the perfect proof and argument. Allah’s reply is, in fact, clear because it is based upon two facts which no one can dispute except he who prefers misguidance to guidance, and hence, deserves total loss.
“Allah SWT is Able, if He Wills, to create human beings with a nature which knows only guidance, or He can force them to follow His guidance, or instill guidance into their hearts without force. Instead, Allah Wills another thing. He (SWT) Wills to try human beings with the ability to choose either guidance or misguidance, so that He can help the ones
The Concealment of Al-Qadar and the Prohibition to embark boldly on it
It is sufficient for a believer to know al-Qada’ wal-Qadar, its meaning and levels, and to believe in it and that Allah knows everything, creates everything, what He does not will, does not occur, He is Just and Wise. This is all there is to this subject. Allah has revealed to us everything that we need in this world, and what He kept secret we should not embark upon, for fear that we should dispute and be destroyed. Our minds are limited. Allah created them to inhabit the earth and not to probe into Ghaib which Allah SWT kept in His Knowledge. We have no choice except to submit and believe in what Allah has informed us about Ghaib and its matters. The relation between Allah’s creation of actions and the human’s will and performance of these actions.
The Prophet ﷺ ordered us not to delve into Al-Qadar. Abu Hurayrah reported that Allah’s Messenger ﷺ came to us as we had been arguing with each other about the Divine Decree (al-Qadar). He was so annoyed that his face became as red as if there had been squeezed on his cheeks the flesh of pomegranates. He said: Is this what you have been commanded to do, is this with which I have been sent to you? Those who had gone before you were destroyed as they disputed about it. I adjure you, I adjure you not to fall into argumentation in regard to it.
Effect on the Muslim of belief in Al-Qadar
if you believe that everything occurs by the Pre-decree of Allaah, then at times of delight you will give thanks to Allaah, The Mighty and Majestic, and you do not become amazed with your own self. You do not also think that this matter occurred by your own power and strength. You do, however, believe that it is just a cause– in case you have done the necessary mean by which you have attained that which delights you–and that all the good is in the Hand of Allaah. So you will be more thankful for the blessing granted by Allaah, The One free of all imperfection, The Most High. This will motivate you to carry on the obedience to Allaah in accordance with that which He commanded you, and that you do not regard your own self having a favor upon Allaah. Rather, you see that the favor is His, The One free of all imperfection, The Most High. He, The Exalted, says:
They regard as favor upon you (O Muhammad ﷺ) that they have embraced Islaam. Say: “Count not your Islaam as a favor upon me. Nay, but Allaah has conferred a favor upon you, that He has Guided you to the faith, if you indeed are true.” [Qur’aan, soorat al-Hujuraat (49): 17].
Similarly, if a calamity befalls you, you believe in Allaah and submit without being regretful or afflicted with grief on that. Have you not given thought to the saying of the Prophet ﷺ:
“A strong believer is better and is more lovable to Allaah than a weak believer, and there is good in every one of them. Cherish that which gives you benefit and seek help from Allaah and do not lose heart, and if anything (in the form of trouble) comes to you, do not say: If I had not done that, it would have not happened so and so, but say: Allaah did that which He had Pre-decreed, and He does whatever He Wills, and that “if” opens the way for the acting of Shaytan [by casting opposition to Allaah’s Pre-decree in the heart].” [Sahih Muslim]
So, in the belief in the Pre-decree there is rest to the soul and heart and absence of grief at that which escaped, and of worry and distress at that which is to come. Allaah, The Most High, Says:
“ No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (al-Lawh al-Mahfooth) before we bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allaah. In order that you may not grieve at the things that you fail to get, not to rejoice over things which has been given to you.” [Qur’aan, soorat al-Hadeed (57): 22-23].
As to the one who does not believe in al-Qadar, there is no doubt that he will grieve and regret at times of calamities, and the Shaytaan will open up for him every new way or possibility [to confuse him and keep him dissatisfied]. And That he will be pleased and become proud and deluded if prosperity befalls him. The Eemaan in the Pre-decree, however, prevents all of this.
This Deen (Islam) is based on submiting to Allah’s Wisdom and Will, and on refraining from enquiring about details of His Wisdom in commands and interdictions. This is how the companions of the Prophets were. Islam will not be fully established except by the extent of submission. The first levels of glorifying the command is belief in it, then firm determination to comply with it, then the speed to undertake it.
The Aqeedah (belief in) of Al-Qadar had a great effect on the hearts and souls of the Companions of the Prophet ﷺ. They conquered the world carrying with them the Aqeedah of Al Qadar as the Prophet ﷺ had taught them. The Prophet ﷺ said to Ibnu Abbas:
“Boy, I would like to teach you something. Be careful and follow Allah’s commands. Allah will protect you. You should safeguard His rights, and you will always find Him with you. If you need something, ask Allah, and when you need help, solicit only Allah for the same. Bear in -mind that if all the people combined together to grant you some benefit, they would not be able to do it unless Allah has determined it for you and that if all of them combined together to do you harm, they would not be able to do it unless Allah has determined it for you. The pens have been set aside and the writings of the book of fate have become dry.” (TIRMIDHI)
As regards Allah’s verse:
“No calamity befalls, but with the Leave (that is, decision and Qadar) of Allah, and whosoever believes in Allah, He guides his heart, and Allah is the All-Knower of everything” (64:11)
Alkamah, may Allah have mercy upon him, interprets it as follows: “A person afflicted by a disaster, knows that it is from Allah and he accepts it and submits to it”. Ibnu Abbaas said: “Guides his heart to certainty, and he knows that whatever he receives, he would have never missed it, and what he missed, he would have never received it”
Belief in Al-Qadar does not contradict adopting appropriate means
We should not forget that we are ordered to adopt the appropriate means, and put our trust (Tawakkul) in Allah, the Exalted and Glorified, and no-one else, believing that He is the Sovereign of everything and believing that causes do not produce effect except by Allah’s permission. So, He Who created the causes is the One Who created the results and the fruits. Therefore, whoever wants righteous progeny must adopt the right means, which is the legal Islamic marriage.
However, this marriage may not result in offspring, and this will be according to the Will of the Almighty, the Wise.
“To Allah belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth. He creates what He Wills. He bestows female (offspring) upon whom He Wills, and bestows male (offspring) upon whom He Wills. Or He bestows both males and females, and He renders barren whom He Wills. Verily, He is the All-Knower and is Able to do all things” (26:49,50)
Therefore, it is forbidden for a Muslim not to adopt the means. If a person abandons seeking his means of living, he will be committing a sin, though the sustenance is in Allah’s Hands.
The author of Al-Ageedah at-Tahaawiyyah said: “Some people thought that putting one’s complete faith in and trust on Allah in every aspect of one’s life contradicts earning one’s living and adopting the means for it, and if events are preordained, there is no need to adopt any means. However, this belief is corrupt because earning includes what is obligatory, commendable, permissible, reprehensible, and forbidden. The Prophet ﷺ was the best of those who put his trust in Allah, he prepared himself for war and walked in the markets to earn his living”
Mua’wiya Ibnu Qurra said: “Umar Ibnu al-Khattab met some people from Yemen, and asked them: “Who are you?, they said: `We are al-Mutawakkilun’ (those who put their trust in Allah), he told them: `You are al-Muta’akilun’ (the rusty), al Mutawakkil is the one who ploughs his land and then puts his trust on Allah”
Ibnu al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah said: “Tawheed cannot be achieved except by practising the means that Allah SWT has appointed. Suspending use of the means detracts from trust (Tawakkul).Abandoning use of the means contradicts trust. The real meaning of trust is to rely on Allah to gain what is useful in life and religion and avoid what is harmful in life and religion. This trust in Allah SWT should be accompanied with physical efforts otherwise wisdom and the Shari’ah will be hindered. The believer should not therefore turn his failure into trust (Tawakkul) nor his trust into failure.
Sahlu Bnu Abdu Allah said: “Whoever refutes the action, he has indeed refuted the Sunnah. And whoever refutes Tawakkul, he has indeed refuted Eemaan. Tawakkul is the characteristic of the Prophet ﷺ and earning is his customary action, so whoever follows the characteristic of the Prophet ﷺ should not abandon his action”
TIPS OF TEST