Prophets Ismail & Ishaq (A.S.)
PROPHET ISMA’IL A.S. (Ishmael)
Ibrahim leaves Hajar and Isma’il
One day, Ibrahim woke up and asked his wife Hajar to get her son and prepare for a long journey. In a few days Ibrahim started out with his wife Hajar and their son Isma’il. The child was still nursing and not yet weaned. Ibrahim walked through cultivated land, desert, and mountains until he reached the desert of the Arabian Peninsula and came to an uncultivated valley having no fruit, no trees, no food, and no water. The valley had no sign of life. After Ibrahim had helped his wife and child to dismount, he left them with a small amount of food and water which was hardly enough for 2 days. He turned around and walked away. He wife hurried after him asking: “Where are you going Ibrahim, leaving us in this barren valley?” Ibrahim did not answer her, but continued walking. She repeated what she had said, but he remained silent. Finally she understood that he was not acting on his own initiative. She realized that Allah had commanded him to do this. She asked him: “Did Allah command you to do so?” He replied: “Yes.” Then his great wife said: “We are not going to be lost, since Allah Who has commanded you is with us.”
Ibrahim invoked Almighty Allah thus: “O Our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in a valley with no cultivation, by Your Sacred House (the Ka’ba at Mecca); in order, O our Lord, that they may offer prayers perfectly (Iqamat as salat) so fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and O Allah provide them with fruits so that they may give thanks. O our Lord! Certainly, You know what we conceal and what we reveal. Nothing on the earth or in the heavens is hidden from Allah.” (14:37-38)
Hajar and Isma’il – Narrated by Ibn Abbas
Ibn Abbas narrated: “The first lady to use a girdle was the mother of Isma’il. She used a girdle so that she might hide her tracks from Sarah (by dragging it). Ibrahim brought her and her son Isma’il while she was suckling him to a place near the Kaba under a tree on the spot of ZamZam at the highest place in the mosque. During those days there was nobody in Mecca, nor was there any water so he made them sit over there and placed near them a leather bag containing some dates and a small water skin containing some water and set out homeward. Isma’il’s mother followed him saying:
“O Ibrahim! Where are you going, leaving us in this valley where there is no person whose company we may enjoy, nor is there anything to enjoy?” she repeated that to him many times, but he did not look back at her. Then she asked him: “Has Allah ordered you to do so?” He said: “Yes.” She then said: “Then He will not neglect us,” and returned while Ibrahim proceeded onwards. On reaching the Thaniya where they could not see him, he faced the Kaba and raising both hands, invoked Allah saying the following prayers: “O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring dwell in a valley without cultivation, by Your Sacred House (Kaba at Mecca) in order, O our Lord that they may offer prayer perfectly. So fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and O Allah provide them with fruits so that they may give thanks.” (14:37)
Ibn Abbas’s narration continued; “Isma’il’s mother went on suckling Isma’il and drinking from the water (she had) When the water in the water skin had been used up, she became thirsty and her child also became thirsty, She started looking at him (Isma’il) tossing in agony. She left him, for she could not endure looking at him, and found that the mountain of As-Safa was the nearest mountain to her on that land. She too on it and started looking at the valley keenly so that she might see somebody, but she could not see anybody. Then she descended for As Safa and when she reached the valley, she tucked up her robe and ran in the valley like a person in distress and trouble till she crossed the valley and reached the mountain of Al Marwa. There she stood and started looking expecting to see somebody, but she could not see anybody. She repeated that running between Safa and Marwa seven times.”
Hajar sees Zam-zam – by Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
The prophet Muhammad ﷺ said: “This is the source of the tradition of the Sa’y (rituals of the hajj, pilgrimage) the going of people between them (As-Safa and Al-Marwa). When she reached Al Marwa (for the last time) she heard a voice and she asked herself to be quiet and listened attentively. She heard the voice again and said: “O whoever you maybe! You have made me hear your voice; have you got something to help me?” And behold! She saw an angel at the place of Zam zam, digging the earth with his heel (or his wing) till water flowed from that place. She started to make something like a basin around it, using her hand in this way, and started filling her water skin with water with her hands and the water was flowing out water she had scooped some of it.” The Prophet ﷺ added: “May Allah bestow mercy on Isma’il’s mother! Had she let the zam-zam flow without trying to control it, or had she not scooped from that water to fill her water skin, Zam zam would have been a stream flowing on the surface of the earth.”
Makka is Settled – Told by Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
The Prophet ﷺ continued: “Then she drank water and suckled her child. The angel said to her: “Don’t be afraid of being neglected, for this is the House of Allah which will be built by this boy and his father, and Allah never neglects His people.” The House (Kaba) at that time was on a high place resembling a hillock, and when torrents came, they flowed to its right and left. “She lived in that way till some people from the tribe of Jurhum or a family from Jurhum passed by her and her child as they (the Jurhum people) were coming through the way of Kada. they landed in the lower part of Mecca where they saw a bird that had the habit of flying around water and not leaving it. they said: “this bird must be flying around water, though we know that there is no water in this valley.” They sent one or two messengers who discovered the source of water and returned to inform them of the water. So they all came towards the water. Isma’il’s mother was sitting near the water. They asked her: “Do you allow us to stay with you?” She replied: “Yes, but you will have no right to possess the water.” They agreed to that. Isma’il’s mother was pleased with the whole situation, as she used to love to enjoy the company of the people, so they settled there, and later on they sent for their families who came and settled with them so that some families became permanent residents there. The child (Isma’il) grew up and learned Arabic from them and (his virtues) caused them to love and admire him as he grew up and when he reached the age of puberty they made him marry a woman from amongst them.”
Ibrahim and Isma’il (PBUT) – The Sacrifice
Allah the Almighty told us of Ibrahim’s affliction with his beloved son: “And he said after his rescue from the fire: ‘Verily! I am going to my Lord. He will guide me! My Lord! Grant me (offspring) from the righteous.” SO We gave him the glad tidings of a forbearing boy. And when he (his son) was old enough to walk with him, he said: “O my son! I have seen in a dream that I am slaughtering you (offer you in sacrifice to Allah), so look what do you think!Ý” “O my father! Do that which you are commanded InshAllah (if Allah wills), you shall find me of the patient.” Then when they had both submitted themselves to the Will of Allah and he had laid him prostrate on his forehead (or on the side of his forehead for slaughtering); and We called out to him: “O Ibrahim! You have fulfilled the dream (vision!” Verily! Thus do Wereward those who perform good deeds, totally for Allah’s sake only. Verily, that indeed was a manifest trial and We ransomed him with a great sacrifice (a ram;) and We left for him ( a goodly remembrance) among generations (to come) in later times. “Salamun (peace) be upon Ibrahim!” Thus indeed do We reward the Muhsineen (good doers). Verily, he was one of Our believing slaves. (37:99-111)
Ibrahim returned a few years later to find his infant Ismail an energetic boy. He was tested again. He saw in a dream that he was offering his son Ismail as a sacrifice to his Lord. Ismail was his only son at this ripe age. Having decided however to win His pleasure, Ibrahim told the son of his dream. Being son of a great soul, Ismail immediately agreed, for this he said was ordained by God. Ibrahim took him to Mina (near Makkah) and as he laid Ismail to slaughter him, his Lord awarded him with great pleasure and ransomed Ismail with a goat sacrifice. This is the practice which is followed by all Muslims throughout the world as Eid Al-Adha or the festival of sacrifice.
When Prophet Ibrahim was taking his son, Ismail for a sacrifice in Mina the Iblees tried the seduce the family three times and they threw dust and pebbles upon him. The pilgrims follow the same practice and throw pebbles upon Iblees seven times each in three days of Haj.
The Prophet ﷺ continued: “After Isma’il’s mother had died, Ibrahim came after Isma’il’s marriage in order to see his family that he had left before but he did not find Isma’il there. When he asked Isma’il’s wife about him, she replied: “He has gone in search of livelihood.” Then he asked her about their way of living and their condition, and she replied, “We are living in misery; we are living in hardship and destitution,” complaining to him. He said: “When your husband returns, convey my salutations to him and tell him to change the threshold of the gate (of his house).“
When Isma’il came, he seemed to have felt something unusual, so he asked his wife: “Has anyone visited you?” she replied, “Yes, an old man of such and such description came and asked me about you and I informed him and he asked about our state of living and I told him that we were living in a hardship and poverty.” On that Isma’il said: “Did he advise you anything?” She said: “Yes he told me to convey his salutation to you and to tell you to change the threshold of your gate.” Isma’il said: “It was my father and he has ordered me to divorce you. Go back to your family.” So, Isma’il divorced her and married another woman from among them (Jurhum).
The Kaba is Built – by Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
“Then Ibrahim stayed away from them for a period as long as Allah wished and called on them again but did not find Isma’il. So he came to Isma’il’s wife and asked her about Isma’il. She said: ‘he has gone in sof our livelihood.’ Ibrahim asked her; ‘how are you getting on?’ asking her about their sustenance and living. she replied: ‘we are prosperous and well off (we have everything in abundance).’ then she thanked Allah. Ibrahim said: ‘What kind of food do you eat?’ she said: ‘meat.’ he said: ‘what do you drink?’ she said: ‘water.’ he said: ‘O Allah! bless their meat and water.””
The Prophet ﷺ added: “At that time they did not have grain, and if they had grain he would have also invoked Allah to bless it. If somebody has only these two things as his sustenance, his health and disposition will be badly affected unless he lives in Mecca.”
The Prophet ﷺ continued: “Then Ibrahim said to Isma’il’s wife: ‘When your husband comes give my regards to him and tell him that he should keep firm the threshold of his gate.’ When Isma’il came back he asked his wife, ‘did anyone call no you?’ she replied: ‘yes, a good looking old man came to me,’ so she praised him and added: ‘He asked about you and I informed him that we were in a good condition.’ Isma’il asked her:’ did he give you any piece of advice?’ she said; ‘yes, he told me to give his regards to you and ordered that you should keep firm the threshold of your gate.’ on that Isma’il said: ‘It was my father, and you are the threshold of the gate. He has ordered me to keep you with me.’
Then Ibrahim stayed away from them for a period as long as Allah wished and called on them afterwards. He saw Isma’il under a tree near Zam Zam, sharpening his arrows. When he saw Ibrahim, he rose up to welcome him (and they greeted each other as a father does with his son or a son does with his father). Ibrahim said: ‘O Isma’il! Allah has give me an order.’ Isma’il said: ‘Do what your Lord has ordered you to do.’ Ibrahim asked:’Will you help me?’ Isma’il said: ‘I will help you.’ Ibrahim said: ‘Allah has ordered me to build a house here,’ pointing to a hillock higher than the land surrounding it. “Then they raised the foundations of the House (the Kaba). Isma’il brought the stones while Ibrahim built and when the walls became high Isma’il brought this stone and put it for Ibrahim who stood over it and carried on building. While Isma’il was handing him the stones, and both of them were saying: “Our Lord! Accept this service from us, verily, You are the All Hearer, the All Knower.” (2:127)
The Prophet ﷺ added: “Then both of them went on building and going round the Kaba saying: “O our Lord! Accept this service from us, verily, You are the All Hearer, the All Knower.“; (Sahih Bukhari).
When the building became high and the old man (Ibrahim) could no longer lift the stones to such a high position, he stood over the stone of Al Maqam and Isma’il carried on handing him the stones and both of them were saying: “O our Lord! Accept this service of us, verily You are the All Hearer, the All Knower.””
Tidings of Ishaq
In the meantime, three angels descended to the earth; Gabriel, Israphael, and Michael. They came in human shapes and saluted Ibrahim. Ibrahim arose and welcomed them. He took them inside his tent thinking they were strangers and guests. He seated them and made sure that they were comfortable, then excused himself to go to his people.
His wife Sarah arose when he entered. She had become old and white haired. Ibrahim said to her: “We have three strangers in the house.” “Who are they?” she asked. “I do not know any of them,” he answered. “What food have we got?” He asked. Half a sheep.” she replied, “Half a sheep! Slaughter a fat calf for them; they are strangers and guests.” he ordered while leaving. The servants roasted and served a calf. Ibrahim invited the angels to eat and he started eating so as to encourage them. He continued, but when he glanced at his guests to assure they were eating, he noticed that none of them had touched the food. He said to the them: “Are you not going to eat?” He resumed eating, but when he glanced at them again he found that they were still not eating. Their hands did not reach out for the food. He began to fear them. Ibrahim’s fears increased. The angels, however were reading his inner thoughts and one of them said: “Do not fear.” Ibrahim raised his head and replied: “Indeed I am in fear. I have asked you to eat food but you do not stretch out your hands to eat. Do you intend me evil?”
One of the angels smiled and said: “We do not eat. We are Allah’s angels.” One of them then turned towards his wife and conveyed the glad tidings about Isaac (Ishaaq).
PROPHET ISHAQ A.S. (Isaac)
Ishaq’s Sons – from Commentators
The Quran does not give details of Ishaq’s life ﷺ, but reliable Quranic commentators that he was married to Rebekah Bint Bethuel, Ibn Nahor (who was a brother of Ibrahim). She gave birth to a set of twins, Esau (Al Eis) and Jacob (Yaqub).
Ill feelings developed between the two brothers when they grew into manhood. Esau disliked the fact that Yaqub was favoured by his father and by Allah with prophethood. This ill feeling became so serious that Esau threatened to kill his brother. Fearing for his life, Yaqub fled the country.
Ishaq fell ill and died when he was one hundred eighty years old. His sons Esau and Yaqub buried him with his father Ibrahim Al Khalil. It was said that Ibrahim died at the age of one hundred seventy five.